Disc brown to olive, with no spots or markings. Pectoral fins ("wings") long and pointed.
Snout projecting, squarish, with an indentation at center (almost bi-lobed). Two small
cephalic fins (rostra) protruding from front of head. Mouth small, sub-terminal. Tail whip-
like with spine at base just posterior to a small dorsal fin.
A pelagic species found in bays, estuaries, river mouths, and open ocean.
Diet consists mainly of bivalve mollusks, crustaceans, and various other benthic
invertebrates (i.e. clams, oysters, shrimp, marine worms).
Aplacental viviparity. Normally just one pup per litter.
Wingspan up to 3 feet.
Forms large schools containing 100s or 1,000s of individuals. Migrates seasonally in the
Gulf of Mexico and along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Present in some estuaries year-round.
Non-aggressive species of little danger to humans with the exception of their defensive
venomous barb located near the base of the tail. Avoid handling or exercise extreme
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