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    ROUGHTAIL STINGRAY
    Dasyatis centroura




    Identification
    Color dark brown to olive brown dorsally and whitish ventrally. Disc broad but less angular
    than the southern stingray.  The snout is moderately long and angular with an obtuse tip.
    Several rows of denticles/thorns on the tail (hence the name 'roughtail').  Large venomous
    spine(s) near base of long whip like tail (1-4 spines, some 8-10" long in larger fish).  Long
    ventral fin fold on tail but much lower than in southern stingray, dark brown to black in
    color.  Dorsal fin fold on tail absent.

    Habitat
    Dwells in muddy and sandy substrate.  Inhabits coastal waters including ocean beaches,
    and some bays, and estuaries.  It can be found at depths over 600 feet.

    Feeding
    Benthic feeder.  Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates and fishes.

    Reproduction
    Aplacental viviparity. Two to four pups per litter.

    Size/Age
    Largest whiptail stingray species in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Wingspan of up to 7.25
    feet and up to 660 pounds.

    Human Factors
    Non-aggressive species of little danger to humans with the exception of their defensive
    venomous barb located near the base of the tail.  Avoid handling or exercise extreme
    caution.




























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