Color dark brown to olive brown dorsally and whitish ventrally. Disc broad but less angular
than the southern stingray. The snout is moderately long and angular with an obtuse tip.
Several rows of denticles/thorns on the tail (hence the name 'roughtail'). Large venomous
spine(s) near base of long whip like tail (1-4 spines, some 8-10" long in larger fish). Long
ventral fin fold on tail but much lower than in southern stingray, dark brown to black in
color. Dorsal fin fold on tail absent.
Dwells in muddy and sandy substrate. Inhabits coastal waters including ocean beaches,
and some bays, and estuaries. It can be found at depths over 600 feet.
Benthic feeder. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates and fishes.
Aplacental viviparity. Two to four pups per litter.
Largest whiptail stingray species in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Wingspan of up to 7.25
feet and up to 660 pounds.
Non-aggressive species of little danger to humans with the exception of their defensive
venomous barb located near the base of the tail. Avoid handling or exercise extreme
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